Understanding enzymes and the factors that affect them essay

The use of goggles is recommended if students are using acids or bases.

Understanding enzymes and the factors that affect them essay

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity: This article throws light upon the six factors affecting the enzyme activity.

The six factors are: The contact between the enzyme and substrate is the most essential pre-requisite for enzyme activity.


The important factors that influence the velocity of the enzyme reaction are discussed hereunder: As the concentration of the enzyme is increased, the velocity of the reaction proportionately increases Fig.

In fact, this property of enzyme is made use in determining the activities of serum enzymes for diagnosis of diseases. Increase in the substrate concentration gradually increases the velocity of enzyme reaction within the limited range of substrate levels. A rectangular hyperbola is obtained when velocity is plotted against the substrate concentration Fig.

Three distinct phases of the reaction are observed in the graph. Enzyme kinetics and Km value: The enzyme E and substrate S combine with each other to form an unstable enzyme-substrate complex ES for the formation of product P.

Understanding enzymes and the factors that affect them essay

Here k1, k2 and k3 represent the velocity constants for the respective reactions, as indicated by arrows.

It indicates that half of the enzyme molecules i. Km value is a constant and a characteristic feature of a given enzyme. It is a representative for measuring the strength of ES complex.

Characteristics of bacteria

A low Km value indicates a strong affinity between enzyme and substrate, whereas a high Km value reflects a weak affinity between them. For majority of enzymes, the Km values are in the range of to moles. Line weaver-Burk double reciprocal plot: For the determination of Km value, the substrate saturation curve Fig.

By taking the reciprocals of the equation 1a straight line graphic representation is obtained. The Line weaver-Burk plot is shown in Fig. Further, the double reciprocal plot is useful in understanding the effect of various inhibitions. Velocity of an enzyme reaction increases with increase in temperature up to a maximum and then declines.

A bell-shaped curve is usually observed Fig.

Understanding enzymes and the factors that affect them essay

However, a few enzymes e. Increase in the hydrogen ion concentration pH considerably influences the enzyme activity and a bell-shaped curve is normally obtained Fig. Each enzyme has an optimum pH at which the velocity is maximum. Most of the enzymes of higher organisms show optimum activity around neutral pH There are, however, many exceptions like pepsinacid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase for optimum pH.

Effect of Product Concentration: The accumulation of reaction products generally decreases the enzyme velocity. In the living system, this type of inhibition is generally prevented by a quick removal of products formed.

Rarely, anions are also needed for enzyme activity e.Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body. The brain is the most sensitive. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, irritability, memory problems, inability to have children, and tingling in the hands and feet.

It causes almost 10% of intellectual disability of otherwise unknown cause and can result in behavioral problems. The rates of enzyme synthesis and activity are further influenced by hormones, neurosecretions, and other chemicals that affect the cell’s internal environment.

Factors affecting enzyme activity Because enzymes are not consumed in the reactions they catalyze and can be used over and over again, only a very small quantity of an . There are at least four possible positions on the thermodynamics of weight gain: 1. Weight gain does not depend on calories in versus calories out, even in the loosest sense.

2. Weight gain is entirely a function of calories in versus calories out, but calories may move in unexpected ways not linked. Ethos Wycombe Abbey enables girls to open their minds and to develop their personal passions.

The learning environment is supportive, yet challenging, with a sense that pupils and their teachers are on an educational journey together. Factors affecting catalytic activity of enzymes Enzymes can be immobilized by fixing them to a solid surface.

This has a number of commercial advantages: the enzyme is easily removed; the enzyme can be packed into columns and used over a long period;. Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..

Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.

Bladder Stones: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments