Understanding enzymes and the factors that affect them essay

The use of goggles is recommended if students are using acids or bases.

Understanding enzymes and the factors that affect them essay

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity: This article throws light upon the six factors affecting the enzyme activity.

The six factors are: The contact between the enzyme and substrate is the most essential pre-requisite for enzyme activity.

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The important factors that influence the velocity of the enzyme reaction are discussed hereunder: As the concentration of the enzyme is increased, the velocity of the reaction proportionately increases Fig.

In fact, this property of enzyme is made use in determining the activities of serum enzymes for diagnosis of diseases. Increase in the substrate concentration gradually increases the velocity of enzyme reaction within the limited range of substrate levels. A rectangular hyperbola is obtained when velocity is plotted against the substrate concentration Fig.

Three distinct phases of the reaction are observed in the graph. Enzyme kinetics and Km value: The enzyme E and substrate S combine with each other to form an unstable enzyme-substrate complex ES for the formation of product P.

Understanding enzymes and the factors that affect them essay

Here k1, k2 and k3 represent the velocity constants for the respective reactions, as indicated by arrows.

It indicates that half of the enzyme molecules i. Km value is a constant and a characteristic feature of a given enzyme. It is a representative for measuring the strength of ES complex.

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A low Km value indicates a strong affinity between enzyme and substrate, whereas a high Km value reflects a weak affinity between them. For majority of enzymes, the Km values are in the range of to moles. Line weaver-Burk double reciprocal plot: For the determination of Km value, the substrate saturation curve Fig.

By taking the reciprocals of the equation 1a straight line graphic representation is obtained. The Line weaver-Burk plot is shown in Fig. Further, the double reciprocal plot is useful in understanding the effect of various inhibitions. Velocity of an enzyme reaction increases with increase in temperature up to a maximum and then declines.

A bell-shaped curve is usually observed Fig.

Understanding enzymes and the factors that affect them essay

However, a few enzymes e. Increase in the hydrogen ion concentration pH considerably influences the enzyme activity and a bell-shaped curve is normally obtained Fig. Each enzyme has an optimum pH at which the velocity is maximum. Most of the enzymes of higher organisms show optimum activity around neutral pH There are, however, many exceptions like pepsinacid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase for optimum pH.

Effect of Product Concentration: The accumulation of reaction products generally decreases the enzyme velocity. In the living system, this type of inhibition is generally prevented by a quick removal of products formed.

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