Table of Contents Chapter 2. Positive Attitudes and Perceptions About Learning Without positive attitudes and perceptions, students have little chance of learning proficiently, if at all. There are two categories of attitudes and perceptions that affect learning:
The greatest damage they have inflicted on public education, however, lies not in a mistrained corps of educators but in the effects of their virtually evidence-free theories and practices on the K curriculum as conveyed by these educators and the textbooks used in K Then, using excerpts from the pedagogical framework of a leading grade 11 American literature anthology authored by leading professors of English education in the country, I show how the application of this pedagogical theory to literary study leads to an intellectually, socially, and civically dysfunctional school curriculum.
General Theories Driving the Pedagogy Taught in Education Schools Two major pedagogical theories on learning drive most of the pedagogy promoted in education schools today.
Although both theories are concerned with motivation to learn, especially the motivation of the lowest-achieving students in our public schools, they have affected the school curriculum in different ways.
One theory, often called constructivism, assumes that motivation to learn is enhanced by the opportunity to choose what to learn and how to learn it.
This theory claims that what students learn must be self-constructed from their own initiatives and experiences. Meaningful learning is said to take place only when students can construct, with their peers, their own understanding of the world they live in, whether from personal experience or from the texts they choose to read.
Reader Response theory is a version of this pedagogical theory for literary study—how to teach students to read a literary text. In its radical form, the pedagogical strategies that are related to this theory encourage students to interpret what they read through the lens of personal experience, regardless of what the author actually wroteAny interpretation of a text can be considered valid.
The influence of reader response pedagogy on the students of several generations of elementary and secondary English teachers has been enormous.
Although designed for illiterate farmers and fishermen, his ideas spread throughout the educational world like wildfire, even though independent evaluations of his work in Brazil or elsewhere attesting to the efficacy of his ideas at any educational level and for any group of students have yet to be located.
Critical pedagogy has strongly influenced the teaching of history in the schools, accelerating its absorption into the social studies with a stress on the academic trinity of race, ethnicity, and gender.
In essays published in, andI showed how the secondary literature curriculum was also being transformed by a social justice theory. Like the constructivists, the advocates of critical pedagogy are uninterested in the teaching of reading skills or literary appreciation.
The social and political criteria it justified not only helped to determine the literary works read in the English class and the thematic connections that students were encouraged to see among these works, they motivated the use of other kinds of material as well—videos, diaries, letters, and a variety of other primary documents.
As I show in an essay published inby intention, not default, the English class has more and more been turned into an ersatz social studies class, with debased or biased content taught by a moralizing pedagogue untrained in history or any social science.
Not only has it been approved for adoption in textbook adoption states,it is also the anthology that the University of California chose to feature in its online pilot course for a grade 11 course in American literature in On what basis might the pedagogy presented in this anthology be perceived as authoritative in the field and as reflecting what is promoted in English education coursework?
To begin with, most of its eight authors are nationally known education professors in English education. A back-breaking pages long, with over excerpts and complete selections from a variety of genres, the organization of the anthology reflects a social studies approach. The result is that contemporary selections addressing the constructs of race, ethnicity, and gender cast a heavy presentistic shadow on the older selections with which they are thematically grouped.
Not only have many readings chosen for their thematic relevance been lifted out of their historical context e.
Most probably because the absence of mainstream American authors would be noticed immediately in a perusal of the Table of Contents by experienced English teachers and parents, and no textbook publisher for the high school market could afford the controversy that would be ignited by an American literature anthology for grade 10 or 11 that bore no resemblance to the American literary history they studied when they were in high school.
The questions asking students to make links to their lives reflect constructivist pedagogical theory. Many English teachers do not have the historical knowledge or political sophistication to know how to use the selections or questions in the ST to implement a social justice approach to the fullest extent possible.
Readers familiar with the highly slanted, derogatory material in current college textbooks or conferences on American history, values, and policies towards the rest of the world may not find the examples that I offer from the pedagogical apparatus in the ST or TE particularly startling or outrageous.
But one must recall that most K textbooks purchased for whole-class use are first vetted by large groups of teachers and others, especially in adoption states. As a result, these textbooks must not readily appear to be promoting a particular social and political agenda, one that some older teachers and many parents might be vehemently opposed to.
These materials may be just as poisonously anti-civic or ridiculousas I point out in a review of some of these materials and workshops, but they generally come in under the radar screen.A secondary school revision resource for GCSE Religious studies, in this section you will learn about the different religious opinions in regards to fighting and war.
Different Philosophies of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X Martin Luther King Malcolm X I say to you today, even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a 17 Martin Luther King, Jr.
Stride Toward Freedom, New York: Harper and Row, , p. Can you think of a prejudiced attitude you have held toward a group of people? How did your prejudice develop?
Prejudice often begins in the form of a stereotype —that is, a negative belief about individuals based solely on their membership in a group, regardless of their individual characteristics.
May 12, · Critique my english lit 2 poetry essay:) watch. The poems “Ozymandias” by Percy Shelley and “My Last Duchess” by Robert Browning are very different. However they do have something in common – both poems are representations of ones power.
it is a commentary on the repulsive of attitudes towards women of many Victorian men. Section III: Essay Focus – Physical Journeys How do the texts that you have studied explore the assumptions underlying the concept of the physical journey?
There are many assumptions about what a physical journey is. Apr 30, · We had to discuss the character Marius Byleveld from the Athol Fugard play The Road to Mecca, which is based on the life of outsider artist Helen Martins, creator of the Owl House. I thought I'd share, specifically if there are other students or interested parties who might benefit from having my thoughts r-bridal.com: This is my World.