Jesse Berg Experienced professional coach, and educational speaker Jesse Berg, MSIT, MEd, is an accomplished teacher, professional coach, instructional technologist, and educational speaker. He is the author of the book Visual Leap: Throughout his career, Berg has explored how visual thinking—such as mapping ideas and modeling mathematics—helps learners to harness their creativity, gain deeper understanding, and reach their intellectual potential. Programs can range from one hour to multi-day engagements; content can be flexibly combined to address your specific needs.
To accomplish this, we needed a proven technology strategy framework that would: We created a blueprint that allowed Merck to drive technology development and investment activities across a global manufacturing operation with hundreds of connected supply chains within time frames that reached years into the future.
In this global view, process unit systems up to the plant scale can exist within each box, while site- and enterprise-level integration occurs along pathways defined by the connection of different boxes.
Each processing unit box can be further blown out as necessary, but the overarching scheme allows for the taxonomy of future roadmaps for each node and each pathway see Figure 1.
An example of a pathway is AKOQR, which represents the pathway for a small-molecule pharmaceutical oral dosage form. We followed stakeholder mapping processes to account for external and internal constituencies and to clearly identify key stakeholder groups. Evolving global trends were mapped inward from the customer market and societal needs and outward from the business drivers and manufacturer requirements see Figure 2.
Stakeholder mapping also enabled us to develop key performance indicators KPIs for the global system, thus collapsing the trends and drivers identified into workable and measurable goals. These KPIs produce very precise operational definitions around which global operations-level changes can be made.
During the needs and requirements definition phase, subject matter experts created technology inventories that we were able to use as repositories of internal and external technology efforts and innovations.
The KPIs, trends, and drivers were used to prioritize technologies by time order and importance. This enabled us to create our initial manufacturing technology roadmaps.
Individual technologies were generally at the single- and multi-phase system- and process-unit level; thus, the roadmap visualization allowed for plant- site- and enterprise-level integration and planning see Figure 3.
Stylized example of a technology roadmap. Some stakeholder needs were well-articulated e. As we assessed transformation at a global operational level, it was vital that our efforts combined technologies and defined value drivers.
These dual dimensions and the trade-off space defined the risk posture clearly for our investments in various areas see Figure 4. Technology maturity is shown by extent of need.
A key technology management challenge was lack of visibility concerning how different efforts affect each other, including ones that need information from others to make a larger, more holistic transformation possible.
In helping manage these interdependencies, we applied the multi-domain matrix MDM. A mock version of an MDM is shown below for a sample manufacturing pathway. Multi-domain matrix applied to manage interdependencies for technology initiatives.
The MDM shows relationships within like elements e. Understanding the relationships between some of the most important potential efforts and the process or operands at the enterprise level was critical to managing multi-year efforts and to fostering the right knowledge-sharing and connections required as internal and external entities consider the portfolio of choices.
The crosshairs within the matrix can represent the nature of the connection, e. This created a portfolio of technology projects that is now managed through maturity by an enterprise-wide technology management process and governance, with information and knowledge refreshed annually as implementation progresses.
Merck has mapped and assessed more than technologies with this process—focusing on 42 technologies in various time horizons organized into eight clear domain challenges. The MIT SDM Technology Strategy class mindset, methodologies, and tools have helped Merck create a manufacturing-wide framework, language, and process by which strategies and investments can be discussed, debated, and ultimately managed.
As begins, Merck is well-positioned to meet its five-year goals for manufacturing and, more importantly, the company now has a robust and bullet-proof way of managing technology for the next half decade.My name is Mark Drabenstott, and I am director of the Center for the Study of Rural America at the Federal Reserve Bank in Kansas City.
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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Introduction This chapter presents background of factors affecting sales growth of insurance products. It also gives statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations of the study and scope of the study.
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