The Edwardians The 20th century opened with great hope but also with some apprehensionfor the new century marked the final approach to a new millennium. For many, humankind was entering upon an unprecedented era. To achieve such transformation, outmoded institutions and ideals had to be replaced by ones more suited to the growth and liberation of the human spirit.
Fresh ideals came to the fore; in particular, the ideal of freedom, long cherished in Englandwas being extended to every range of human endeavour. As that ideal swept through Europeit became natural to believe that the age of tyrants might soon end.
The most notable feature of the poetry of the time is the new role of individual thought and personal feeling. To Particularize is the alone Distinction of Merit. Poetry was regarded as conveying its own truth; sincerity was the criterion by which it was to be judged.
But feeling had begun to receive particular emphasis and is found in most of the Romantic definitions of poetry. Another key quality of Romantic writing was its shift from the mimetic, or imitative, assumptions of the Neoclassical era to a new stress on imagination.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge saw the imagination as the supreme poetic quality, a quasi-divine creative force that made the poet a godlike being. Imagination, the Divine Vision. A further sign of the diminished stress placed on judgment is the Romantic attitude to form: Hand in hand with the new conception of poetry and the insistence on a new subject matter went a demand for new ways of writing.
It could not be, for them, the language of feeling, and Wordsworth accordingly sought to bring the language of poetry back to that of common speech. Nevertheless, when he published his preface to Lyrical Ballads inthe time was ripe for a change: Poetry Blake, Wordsworth, and Coleridge Useful as it is to trace the common elements in Romantic poetry, there was little conformity among the poets themselves.
It is misleading to read the poetry of the first Romantics as if it had been written primarily to express their feelings. Their concern was rather to change the intellectual climate of the age. William Blake had been dissatisfied since boyhood with the current state of poetry and what he considered the irreligious drabness of contemporary thought.
His early development of a protective shield of mocking humour with which to face a world in which science had become trifling and art inconsequential is visible in the satirical An Island in the Moon written c.
His desire for renewal encouraged him to view the outbreak of the French Revolution as a momentous event. In works such as The Marriage of Heaven and Hell —93 and Songs of Experiencehe attacked the hypocrisies of the age and the impersonal cruelties resulting from the dominance of analytic reason in contemporary thought.
Here, still using his own mythological characters, he portrayed the imaginative artist as the hero of society and suggested the possibility of redemption from the fallen or Urizenic condition. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridgemeanwhile, were also exploring the implications of the French Revolution.
Wordsworth, who lived in France in —92 and fathered an illegitimate child there, was distressed when, soon after his return, Britain declared war on the republic, dividing his allegiance. For the rest of his career, he was to brood on those events, trying to develop a view of humanity that would be faithful to his twin sense of the pathos of individual human fates and the unrealized potentialities in humanity as a whole.
His investigation of the relationship between nature and the human mind continued in the long autobiographical poem addressed to Coleridge and later titled The Prelude —99 in two books; in five books; in 13 books; revised continuously and published posthumously, The Prelude constitutes the most significant English expression of the Romantic discovery of the self as a topic for art and literature.
Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood. Simultaneously, his poetic output became sporadic. In Wordsworth dedicated a number of sonnets to the patriotic cause. The death in of his brother John, who was a captain in the merchant navywas a grim reminder that, while he had been living in retirement as a poet, others had been willing to sacrifice themselves.
From this time the theme of duty was to be prominent in his poetry. Both Wordsworth and Coleridge benefited from the advent in of the Regency, which brought a renewed interest in the arts.
A Vision; The Pains of Sleep was published in Biographia Literariaan account of his own development, combined philosophy and literary criticism in a new way and made an enduring and important contribution to literary theory.
His later religious writings made a considerable impact on Victorian readers. Sir Walter Scottby contrast, was thought of as a major poet for his vigorous and evocative verse narratives The Lay of the Last Minstrel and Marmion Other verse writers were also highly esteemed.
Another admired poet of the day was Thomas Moorewhose Irish Melodies began to appear in English literature - The Romantic period: As a term to cover the most distinctive writers who flourished in the last years of the 18th century and the first decades of the 19th, “Romantic” is indispensable but also a little misleading: there was no self-styled “Romantic movement” at the time, and the great writers of the period did not call themselves Romantics.
Later during the 15th century King Henry V proclaimed English as the official language and by the end of the 15 th c law books were made available in English language. The Program.
Major and minor areas may be chosen from the following literary fields: Medieval, Renaissance, Restoration and 18 th-century English literature, 19 th-century English literature, 20 th –century English literature, Colonial and 19 th-century American Literature, and 20 th-century American r-bridal.com following may be used only for the minor field: Linguistics, Comparative.
The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years to In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period.
At this time, literature in England was being written in various languages, including Latin, Norman-French, and English: the multilingual nature of the audience for literature in the 14th century is illustrated by the example of John Gower (c.
– October ). Course Summary English English Literature has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and universities.