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These procedures should cover the following: Standard operating procedures may be revised for the following reasons: Introduction of new equipment into the process; Introduction of new chemicals into the process; Significant change to process, task, personnel or equipment covered by the procedure; Plant trials have been successful and need to be incorporated into standard operating procedures.
Limits of Intervention, Control Systems Interface Clear demarcation of where limits of intervention cease and reliance upon the control systems interface begins is a critical step in defining the operating procedures for a given plant or process.
During the hazard and operability stage, the justification of reliance upon human intervention rather than automated systems should be established. This should be assessed in more depth in a subsequent risk assessment. Commissioning procedures Commissioning of process plant is the practical test of the adequacy of prior preparations, including training of operating personnel and provision of adequate operating instructions.
Since the possibility of unforeseen eventualities cannot be eliminated during this period when operating experience is being gained, the need for safety precautions should be reviewed. Full written operating instructions should be provided for all commissioning activities.
Commissioning Procedures document a logical progression of steps necessary to verify that installed plant is fully functional and fit for purpose. A general sequence of steps in commissioning may typically include: System Configuration Check; The purpose of this activity is to trace all pipework and connections to verify the system configuration, and to visually inspect items of equipment to ensure that they are clean, empty and fit for purpose as appropriate prior to undertaking water trials.
Instrumentation System Check - Verification of Alarms and Trips; The purpose of this activity is to ensure that all instrumentation, alarm settings, microprocessor signals and hardwire trips pertaining to the installation are functional.
This will also check that signals from the field instrumentation are displayed locally and are being correctly relayed to the computer interface rack, as well as to the computer system. Flushing and Cleaning of Lines and Vessels with Water; The purpose of this activity is to clean all items of pipework and the vessels that make up the installation.
This task shall also ensure that there are no obstructions, blockages or any potential contaminants in any of the process lines or vessels that may have resulted from materials being left inside the system from the construction phase.
If chemicals incompatible with water are to be used, it is important that the pipelines and equipment are thoroughly dried prior to introduction of the chemicals. This is normally done by passing dry air through the plant. Assessment of Ancillary Equipment; The main aim of this assessment is to verify the performance of all ancillary equipment.
This may include pumps, fans, heat exchangers, condensers etc. Calibration of Vessels and Instrumentation; The purpose of this activity is to check the calibration and performance of all vessels and instrumentation pertaining to the installation.
To a certain extent this will be carried out in conjunction with the system pre-checks to ensure that the correct set points and alarm points have been established for use in the water trials.
Start Up Protocol; The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for bringing the installation online starting from an empty non-operational system. Shut Down Protocol; The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance for taking the installation offline starting from a fully operational system.
Handover Each section should be read in detail to gain understanding about the particular requirements of the activity prior to undertaking the activity itself and completing the associated check list. The checklist will serve as a permanent record of the activity, and can be reviewed if future modifications are undertaken.
It is assumed that prior to the commencement of commissioning activities that full support from plant personnel has been obtained. Specific operating procedures should be provided which take account of all eventualities.
For some specific plant items, start-up is know to present particular additional hazards; some examples of these are: Dryers — when starting up a drying system after maintenance or a plant shutdown, the actual temperature the dryer might reach before settling out with the control system may result in an increased chance of a dust explosion; Furnaces — explosions may occur if ignition of fuel is delayed; Vessels, Tanks, Reactors — ignition of flammable vapours introduced may occur for systems relying on elimination of oxygen to prevent explosions, unless inert gas purging is carried out effectively; Reactors — start-up of batch reactors after agitator failure may cause an uncontrollable exothermic reaction.
The start-up and shut-down procedures should be ordered and phased so that interlinked plant operations can resume or cease in a safe and controlled manner. Any potential deviations to normal operation that cannot be addressed by design or control identified in the Hazard and Operability studies should be covered by emergency procedures.
These should detail how to make plant and process safe, minimising risks to operators at all stages. They should cover PPE, the level of intervention which is safe and when to evacuate.
The procedures will need to tie in closely with the on and off-site emergency plans provided under COMAH. The role of the supervisor in terms of training of operators, overseeing certain critical operations and checking of logs and other activities to ensure compliance with operating procedures.
Human factors The appropriate design of a procedure is critical in the reduction of human error within process operations. The benefits of procedures are that they can aid an operator when they are faced with a complex diagnosis, or they can act purely as an aide memoir during non-critical routine operations.
The following section provides human factors guidance on the production and implementation of procedures. Generally there are four types of procedure: Procedures that provide general operating guidance; Procedures that provide an aid to meeting operating aims; Procedures that are mandatory and prescribe behaviour; and Procedures that are used as a training tool.
Each of the procedure types listed above all conform to the same general human factors principals. These are discussed below. Task analysis The content of important procedures should be based on some form of formal task analysis method to ensure that the procedure accurately describes the task it refers to.
In this situation the task analysis will pick up on this and allow it to be incorporated into the procedures.6 Steps of the Writing Process Writing isn't a problem when you follow the process.
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Explore and Evaluate Your Writing Process The Basic Steps in Composing.
Share Flipboard Email Print (Maya Choi/Getty Images) you'll be working on. In other words, you need to consider how to handle the various steps involved in the process of writing: from discovering ideas for a topic, Describe Your Writing Process.
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Knowing the elements of good business writing can make or break a career. Check Writing Tips In the U.S., you write a check using your checking account.
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We use logic every day to figure out test questions, plan our budgets, and decide who to date. The peer review process is one of the cornerstones of academic writing, and is a way of ensuring that the information in any academic publication is verifiable and .